Bipolar Power Supplies Run The Voltage Gamut

In a previous article, I wrote about generating negative voltages via a standard unipolar dc power supply outfitted with polarity-reversal relays (see “Turn Positive Voltages Negative With Relays”). This method works well for certain applications, namely those requiring discrete test conditions that are sometimes positive and sometimes negative.  For such applications, polarity-reversal relays offer an inexpensive way to generate the …

Troubleshoot and verify 8b/10b encoded signals with a real-time oscilloscope

Few serial technologies have become more widely adopted than 8b/10b coding, which is now used in standards like PCI-Express, Serial ATA, SAS, Fibre Channel, InfiniBand, FireWire, MIPI M-PHY, HDMI, DisplayPort, CIPRI, OBSAI, XAUI, USB3.0 and others. Therefore, any designer will eventually need the ability to efficiently analyze 8b/10b encoded signals using common instrumentation such a real-time oscilloscope. The intent …