I was preparing for a trip to the Eastern European city where my parents had lived as children. I had never been there. I googled the name of the city, and was quickly led to a story that was surprising and chilling: A high school student there had modified a TV remote control so that it could control the city’s tram system–thus converting the urban railways into his own giant model train set. While switching tracks using his infrared gadget, this kid caused trams to derail. Twelve people were injured in one derailment.1
Recently, new terms like Stuxnet and Duqu have entered our lexicon. Embedded systems including those that do supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) are under relentless security attacks.
Many embedded software developers feel that embedded systems security should be handled at the systems-engineering level or by the hardware that surrounds their software. And indeed many things can be done at those levels, including:
• Secure network communication protocols.
• Data encryption.
• Authentication of data sources.
• Hardware-assisted control-flow monitoring.